Formation of Monochloropropane-1,2-diol and Its Esters in Biscuits during Baking

ATAÇ MOGOL B. , Pye C., Anderson W., Crews C., GÖKMEN V.

JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol.62, no.29, pp.7297-7301, 2014 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 62 Issue: 29
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/jf502211s
  • Page Numbers: pp.7297-7301


The formation of free monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD and 2-MCPD) and its esters (bound-MCPD) was investigated in biscuits baked with various time and temperature combinations. The effect of salt as a source of chloride on the formation of these processing contaminants was also determined. Kinetic examination of the data indicated that an increasing baking temperature led to an increase in the reaction rate constants for 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD, and bound-MCPD. The activation energies of formation of 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD were found to be 29 kJ mol(-1). Eliminating salt from the recipe decreased 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD formation rate constants in biscuits by 57.5 and 85.4%, respectively. In addition, there was no formation of bound-MCPD in biscuits during baking without salt. Therefore, lowering the thermal load or limiting the chloride concentration should be considered a means of reducing or eliminating the formation of these contaminants in biscuits. Different refined oils were also used in the recipe to test their effect on the occurrence of free MCPD and its esters in biscuits. Besides the baking process, the results also confirmed the role of refined oil in the final concentration of these contaminants in biscuits.