CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
Roasting is an essential process in cocoa industry involving high temperatures that causes several physicochemical and microstructural changes in cocoa beans that ensure their quality and further processability. The versatility in roasting temperatures (100 - 150 degrees C) has attracted the attention of researchers toward the exploration of the effects of different roasting conditions on the color, proximal composition, cocoa butter quality, concentration of thermolabile compounds, formation of odor-active volatile organic compounds, generation of melanoidins, production of thermal processes contaminants in cocoa nibs, among others. Some researchers have drowned in exploring new roasting parameters (e.g., the concentration of water steam in the roasting chamber), whilst others have adapted novel heat-transfer techniques to cocoa nibs (e.g., fluidized bed roasting and microwaves). A detailed investigation of the physicochemical phenomena occurring under different cocoa roasting scenarios is lacking. Therefore, this review provides a comprehensive analysis of the state of art of cocoa roasting, identifies weak and mistaken points, presents research gaps, and gives recommendations to be considered for future cocoa studies.