Using Least-To-Most Prompting to Increase the Frequency and Diversity of Pretend Play in Children with Autism

SARAL D., Ulke-Kurkcuoglu B.

TOPICS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD SPECIAL EDUCATION, vol.42, no.1, pp.33-49, 2022 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 42 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/0271121420942850
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, IBZ Online, Child Development & Adolescent Studies, CINAHL, EBSCO Education Source, Education Abstracts, Educational research abstracts (ERA), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Psycinfo
  • Page Numbers: pp.33-49
  • Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, pretend play, system of least prompts, least-to-most prompting, contingent imitation, YOUNG-CHILDREN, SKILLS, DISABILITIES, TEACHERS
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


We examined the effects of the least-to-most prompting (LTM) procedure with contingent imitation (CI) on increasing the frequency and diversity of pretend play in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using a multiple probe across toy sets single-case research design. Three children with ASD aged 5 to 6 years took part in the study. LTM was functionally related to increases in the frequency and diversity of children's pretend play. Novel pretend play behaviors, sequences, and vocalizations also increased for all children. Importantly, all children maintained the target skills 1, 2, and 4 weeks after the intervention and generalized them across their homes, mothers, and different toys.