Investigation of different interactions between Staphylococcus aureus phages and pomegranate peel, grape seed, and black cumin extracts

Tayyarcan E. K., SOYKUT E. A., Yilmaz O. M., BOYACI İ. H., Khaaladi M., Fattouch S.

JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, vol.39, no.5, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 39 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/jfs.12679
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Today, antibiotic resistance is one of the most crucial problems so that researchers have begun to search for alternatives to antibiotics. Among these alternatives, phage therapy and phytotherapy became prominent. The present study aims to put forward a different approach by combining these two methods. For this purpose, Staphylococcus aureus phages were isolated from commercial mixtures. After that, extraction of phenolic compounds from pomegranate peels (Ps), grape seeds (GSs), and black cumin (NS) was carried out and antimicrobial activities were determined. Phage-phenolic interactions were investigated by examining the effect of phenolic extracts on phage plaque sizes and then on phage titer and bacteria count. As a result, it was found that only the NS extract had a positive effect on phage activity and increased the size of phage plaques. However, no synergistic effect was observed in experiments performed in liquid media. It was also found that P and GS extracts inhibited phage activity. Practical Applications The present study was focused on effects of extracts obtained from pomegranate peel, grape seed, and black cumin on Staphylococcus aureus phage activity. It is known that antibiotic resistance constitutes a major obstacle to the pathogen elimination. In this study, phage therapy and phytotherapy, which are prominent methods in pathogen elimination, have been combined and the effect of phenolic compounds isolated from natural sources on phage activity and bacteria count have been examined. Given the results of the current study, it has been demonstrated that the combined use of phages and antimicrobial compounds could be an important alternative to combating pathogens. It is thought that this combined method should be taken into consideration both in the practice of phage therapy on humans and animals, and in applications in the food industry.