A melissopalynological and chemical characterization of Anatolian propolis and an assessment of its antioxidant potential

KOLAYLI S., Birinci C., KARA Y., ÖZKÖK A., Samancı A. E. T., Sahin H., ...More

European Food Research and Technology, vol.249, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 249
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00217-023-04208-x
  • Journal Name: European Food Research and Technology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, ABI/INFORM, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Compendex, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Hospitality & Tourism Complete, Hospitality & Tourism Index, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Propolis, Palynology, Balsam, Wax, Phenolic
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Propolis is a natural material collected from beehives. Its bioactive properties are affected by the region’s flora and geographical features. Although there are many studies on Anatolian propolis, data on the botanical and chemical diversity of the region are not sufficient. This study investigated the palynology, wax, balsam, humidity, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content, phenolic composition, and antioxidant properties of Anatolian propolis. The palynological results varied among the regions, Pinaceae, Quercus spp., Castanea sativa, Helianthus annuus, Salix spp., and Fabaceae being identified as the major botanic sources. The average humidity, wax, balsam, total phenolic, and total flavonoid values were 3.13, 26.03, 38.89%, 147.28 mg GAE/g, and 30.58 mg QUE/g, respectively. The phenolic profiles were clarified using RP-HPLC-PAD with 25 phenolic standards, and the samples were found to be rich in caffeic acid, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), chrysin, pinocembrin, and cinnamic acid. Although the composition of the propolis was affected by botanical and geographical features, it was determined that its phenolic composition was not exactly related to the collection area.