The Effects of Concrete-Representational-Abstract Interventions on the Acquisition of Multiplication Facts for Twice Exceptional Student

Creative Commons License

Özer B., Bilgiç Ş., Baloğlu M.

Asia-Pasific Conference on Giftedness, Taipei, Taiwan, 7 - 10 July 2022, vol.1, no.1, pp.1

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Summary Text
  • Volume: 1
  • City: Taipei
  • Country: Taiwan
  • Page Numbers: pp.1
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


A heterogeneous group of gifted students with learning disabilities (LD) constitutes apart of twice-exceptional students (Buică-Belciu & Popovici, 2014). Even though theexact number of twice-exceptional individuals (2e) is not certain, it is estimated that 6percent of the approximately 7.5 million individuals with disabilities served under theIDEA are twice exceptional (National Education Association [NEA], 2006). Maddocks(2020) conducted a study for identifying twice-exceptional students revealed thatgifted children with LD suffered from processing problems such as short-term workingmemory, auditory processing, long-term working memory, retrieval, and processingspeed. Processing speed is the most common processing deficit, and it is related tomathematics calculation (Niileksela et al., 2016). Since many gifted children with LDhave trouble in mathematical calculations, it is highly important to provide them withappropriate mathematics education. NEA (2006) indicated that teachersresponsibilities for twice-exceptional students instruction. They should enablestudents to learn by using hands-on activities and supply them with direct instructionregarding their inadequateness. Concrete-Representation-Abstract (CRA) is anevidence-based strategy used in teaching basic arithmetic operations to students withLD and its effectiveness demonstrated in many studies (Bouck et al.,2018). CRAstrategy offers the necessary mathematics education to 2e students. In the currentstudy, we used single-subject research methodology to improve the basicmultiplication skills of a potentially twice-exceptional student (gifted with LD) byenhancing conceptual and procedural understanding. Each stage(concrete-representational-abstract) included respectively demonstrating, guiding andindependent practice. At the end of each session, the student solved 10 multiplicationfacts and the percent of accuracy was calculated. After the student met the criteria(80% accuracy) three times, he passed to the next stage. His baseline, intervention,and maintenance performance were graphically demonstrated, and visual analysiswas used. Visual analysis demonstrated that although his baseline level was 0%, theaccuracy percentage increased in concrete, representation and abstract sessions and