Inhibitory effect of hawthorn extract on heterocyclic aromatic amine formation in beef and chicken breast meat

Tengilimoglu-Metin M. M. , Hamzalioglu A., GÖKMEN V. , KIZIL M.

FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, cilt.99, ss.586-595, 2017 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası: 99
  • Basım Tarihi: 2017
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.06.044
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.586-595


This study focused on the inhibitory effect of different levels of hawthorn extract (0, 0.5, and 1%) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in beef and chicken breast cooked by either pan-cooking or oven-cooking. All meat samples were cooked at three different temperatures (150, 200, and 250 degrees C) and the levels of twelve HAAs were assessed (IQ, IQx, MeIQ, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, 7,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, harman, norharman, A alpha C, MeA alpha C, and Trp-P-2). Varying levels of IQ (up to 4.47 ng/g), IQx (up to 0.69 ng/g), MeIQ (up to 0.82 ng/g), MeIQx (up to 1.01 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (up to 0.10 ng/g), 7,8-DiMeIQx (up to 0.23 ng/g), Philp (up to 0.75 ng/g), harman (up to 2.15 ng/g), norharman (up to 1.08 ng/g), AaC (up to 1.86 ng/g), MeAaC (up to 0.48 ng/g), and Trp-P-2 (up to 12.88 ng/g), were detected. Samples cooked at 150 degrees C had very low amounts of HAAs, and the levels of HAAs increased gradually when the cooking temperature rose from 150 to 250 C. The total HAA content in chicken breast and beef ranged between not detectable to 17.60 ng/g, and not detectable to 11.38 ng/g, respectively. The inhibitory effects of hawthorn extract at 0.5% and 1% on total HAAs levels were found to be 12-100% and 19-97% in chicken breast, respectively, and 42-100% and 20-35% in beef, respectively. This study demonstrated that hawthorn extracts at 0.5% and 1% could mitigate HAA formation, especially at high cooking temperatures.