Phenolic Compounds, Carotenoids, Anthocyanins, and Antioxidant Capacity of Colored Maize (Zea mays L.) Kernels

Zilic S., Serpen A., Akillioglu G., GÖKMEN V., Vancetovic J.

JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol.60, no.5, pp.1224-1231, 2012 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 60 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/jf204367z
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1224-1231
  • Keywords: colored maize, phenolics, carotenoids, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, PURPLE, BLUE, TOCOPHEROL, TORTILLAS, ACID
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, the contents of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, beta-carotene, and lutein as well as free, conjugated, and insoluble bound phenolic acids were determined in whole kernels of 10 different colored maize genotypes. In addition, the antioxidant activity was evaluated as radical scavenging activity with ABTS (2,2-azino-bis/3-ethil-benothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) reagents. Generally, considerable differences in phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacity were observed between the genotypes. The beta-carotene and lutein contents ranged from 0 to 2.42 mg/kg d.m. and from 0 to 13.89 mg/kg d.m., respectively, whereas the total anthocyanin contents of anthocyanin-rich colored maize genotypes ranged from 2.50 to 696.07 mg CGE/kg d.m. (cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent) with cyanidin 3-glucoside (Cy-3-Glu) as the most dominant form. The light blue ZPP-2 selfed maize genotype has a higher content of total phenolics, flavonoids, and ferulic acid as compared to other tested maize and the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity.