SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY INTERNATIONAL, vol.24, no.3, pp.313-328, 2003 (SSCI)
This meta-analysis synthesized the results from test anxiety reduction programs. Analyses were based on 56 studies (n = 2,482); the overall mean effect size (ES) for test anxiety reduction programs was E++ = 0.65 (95 percent confidence intervals [CI] + 0.58 to 0.73). On measures of anxiety reduction, the average individual completing treatment is seen as better off than 74 percent of those individuals who did not receive treatment. The treatment of test anxiety has been quite successful in reducing the test anxiety level of clients. The most effective treatments appear to be those that combine skill-focussed approaches with behaviour or cognitive approaches. Individually conducted programs, along with programs that combined individual and group counselling formats, produced the greatest changes. There is a serious lack of research on test anxiety reduction programs for primary, secondary and high school students.