Bitter melon extract mitigates heterocyclic aromatic amine formation in chicken thigh meat


Food Science and Nutrition, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/fsn3.4085
  • Journal Name: Food Science and Nutrition
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Greenfile, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: antioxidant, bitter melon, chicken, heterocyclic aromatic amines, marination, Momordica charantia L.
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The purpose of the present research was to study the impact of bitter melon extract (BME) on the generation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in chicken thigh meat. Raw chicken samples were marinated overnight with various levels (0%, 0.5%, and 1%) of BME, and pan-fried at 150, 200, and 250°C for a total of 10 min. IQx, IQ, MeIQx, MeIQ, 7,8-DiMeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, AαC, and MeAαC were detected in quantities that varied according to the cooking temperature and the concentration of BME. Notably, IQx, MeIQx, MeIQ, 7,8-DiMeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, and AαC levels were reduced through the application of the marinade. Cooking at higher temperatures led to elevated levels of total HAAs. Total HAA levels were 0.98 ± 1.12 ng/g, 3.82 ± 2.12 ng/g, and 6.25 ± 3.35 ng/g in samples cooked at 150, 200, and 250°C, respectively (p <.01). BME demonstrated its effectiveness in mitigating total HAA levels, showing reductions ranging from 25.9% to 69.9%. The most effective concentration of BME in reducing total HAAs was 1% for all cooking temperatures, which might be attributed to its antioxidant activity. These results carry substantial implications for potentially incorporating natural extracts such as BME into chicken products as a viable strategy to reduce HAAs, thus enhancing the safety and quality of meat products.