Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for molecular analysis of food samples. A fingerprint spectrum can be obtained for a target molecule by using Raman technology, as specific signals are obtained for chemical bonds in the target. In this way, food components, additives, processes and changes during shelf life, adulterations and numerous contaminants such as microorganisms, chemicals and toxins, can also be determined with or without the help of chemometric methods. The studies included in this review show that Raman spectroscopy has great potential for food analyses. In this review, we aim to bring together Raman studies on components, contaminants, raw materials, and adulterations of various food, and attempt to prepare a database of Raman bands obtained from food samples.