Treatment of cancer with chemotherapeutic drugs is associated with numerous adverse effects as well as the eventual development of resistance to chemotherapy. There is a great need for complementary therapies such as botanicals and nutritional supplements with little or no side effects that prevent resistance to chemotherapy and reduce its adverse effects. Inflammation plays a major role in the development of chemoresistance and the adverse effects of chemotherapy. Phytochemicals have well-established anti-inflammatory effects; thus, they could be used as complementary therapies along with chemotherapy to increase its efficacy and reduce its toxicity. Botanical compounds inhibit the NF-kappa B signaling pathway, which plays an important role in the generation of inflammation, chemotherapy resistance, and modulation of cell survival and apoptosis. Botanicals have previously been studied extensively for their cancer chemopreventive activities and are generally considered safe for human consumption. The present review focuses on the modulation of inflammation by phytochemicals and their role in increasing the efficacy and reducing the toxicity of cancer chemotherapy.