Sprouting is a popular method in cereal processing because sprouted grains are accepted to have high nutritional value. The increased proteolytic activity by sprouting increases the free amino acids in grains. It was hypothesized that an increased amount of tyrosine can be utilized by microorganisms during fermentation to form higher amounts of bioactive tyrosine derivatives. Sprouting increased the tyrosine and tyramine contents considerably, but increases and decreases in L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and dopamine were specific to the cereal. More tyramine, L-DOPA, and dopamine formation was observed during sourdough fermentation than that in yeast fermentation. As a result of the combined application of sprouting (48 h at 20 degrees C) and sourdough fermentation (36 h at 30 degrees C), the amounts of dopamine, L-DOPA, and tyramine found in rye were 27, 50, and 136 mg/kg, respectively. Cereal products rich in dopamine and L-DOPA can thus be produced as functional food ingredients with their positive effects on human health and mood.