JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF NUTRITION, vol.38, no.5, pp.424-432, 2019 (SCI-Expanded)
Objectives: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a progressive disorder among people aged >= 50 years. Some dietary factors associated with the susceptibility to AMD include dietary glycemic index and glycemic load, as well as intake of antioxidants and other nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, and dietary fatty acids. Methods: This case-control study was conducted between July 2015 and February 2016 on 100 case subjects with AMD and 100 healthy controls without AMD. The participants were recruited from the Department of Ophthalmology of Hacettepe University Hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Dietary intake was estimated from a 3-day food intake record and food frequency questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were recorded. The relationship between nutritional factors and AMD was assessed using logistic regression. Results: Dietary total antioxidant intake of AMD group was found to be lower (p < 0.05) than that of healthy individuals. In a multivariate analysis, smoking, daily red meat intake, omega-6 intake, and higher glycemic index were identified as risk factors for AMD development. Meanwhile, daily fruit intake, daily fish intake, omega-3 intake, and zinc intake were associated with a protective effect. However, no difference was found in dietary total antioxidant capacity. Conclusions: In this study, a high dietary intake of carotenoids, vitamins C and E, zinc, and omega-3, as well as maintaining optimal waist circumference, were found to substantially reduce the risk of developing AMD in people aged >50 years. By contrast, in addition to smoking and old age, obesity, high red meat intake, and omega-6 intake might increase the risk of developing AMD. Therefore, a better understanding of nutritional risk factors is necessary for preventing AMD.