Neurodegenerative disorders are becoming prevalent with the increasing age of the general population. A number of difficulties have emerged for the potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, as these disorders may be multi systemic in nature. Due to limitations regarding the blood brain barrier (BBB) structure, efflux pumps and metabolic enzyme expression, conventional drug delivery systems do not provide efficient therapy for neurodegenerative disorders. Nanotechnology can offer impressive improvement of the neurodegenerative disease treatment by using bio-engineered systems interacting with biological systems at a molecular level. This review focuses on the nano-enabled system applications for the treatment and diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Prion diseases.