Interplay between carotid artery dissection and thrombophilia leading to ischaemic stroke after minor head trauma in an adolescent: a case report


Hanalioglu D., Oncel I., HANALİOĞLU Ş., Cebeci D., Kurt F., Gunes A., ...More

Paediatrics and International Child Health, vol.43, no.1-3, pp.13-18, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 43 Issue: 1-3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/20469047.2023.2269362
  • Journal Name: Paediatrics and International Child Health
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.13-18
  • Keywords: Adolescent, arterial ischaemic stroke, cranio-cervical artery dissection, minor head injury, seizure, thrombophilia
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Stroke in children is more common than is often realised; there are numerous potential causes, including carotid artery injury resulting from minor head or neck trauma, as well as genetic conditions associated with thrombophilia. A 13-year-old boy suffered an arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) secondary to dissection of the left internal carotid artery (ICA) after he headed the ball during a game of football. He presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizure, loss of consciousness, right-sided hemiplegia and aphasia. Neuroradiological imaging showed left caudate, putaminal and posterior insular ischaemic infarct secondary to complete occlusion of the left ICA and accompanying partial left middle cerebral artery occlusion. He was treated with anticoagulant and anti-aggregant agents. Rarely, minor head trauma can result in internal carotid artery dissection, thrombus formation and arterial occlusion, leading to arterial ischaemic stroke. Prompt diagnosis and management are crucial to achieve a good neurological outcome. Abbreviations: AIS: arterial ischaemic stroke; ANA: anti-nuclear antibody; APA: anti-phospholipid antibody; APTT: activated partial thromboplastin time; CAD: carotid artery dissection; CCAD: cranio-cervical artery dissection; CRP: C-reactive protein; CT: computed tomography; CTA: computed tomography angiography; dsDNA: double-stranded DNA; ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate; ICA: internal carotid artery; LA: lupus anticoagulant; MCA: middle cerebral artery; MRA: magnetic resonance angiography; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; MTHFR: methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase; PT INR: prothrombin time international normalised ratio.