Pharmacological studies were conducted with the aqueous extract of roots of Rumex patientia L. (Polygonaceae) on experimental animals. For evaluating the antiinflammatory activity, carrageenan, histamine, dextrane, serotonine formaldehyde-induced oedema tests, cotton-pellet granuloma, and Kabak tests in rats were used. The extract was found to possess antiinflammatory activity. Acute toxicity studies revealed that the extract up to a dose of 3 mg/kg orally was nontoxic. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.