A Comprehensive Characterization Study of Human Bone Marrow MSCs with an Emphasis on Molecular and Ultrastructural Properties

Karaoz E., Okcu A., GACAR G., Saglam O., Yuruker S., Kenar H.

JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY, vol.226, no.5, pp.1367-1382, 2011 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 226 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2011
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/jcp.22468
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1367-1382
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) continue to draw attention of researchers in the fields of basic science and medicine due to their indispensible regenerative, reparative, angiogenic, anti-apoptotic, and immunosuppressive properties, all of which collectively point out their enormous therapeutic potential. There is still, however, a need for further investigation of their characteristics to broaden their field of use and learn much more about how to control their fate and improve their therapeutic effectiveness. hBM-MSCs were extensively characterized in terms of their growth characteristics, genetic stability, and differentiation capability to the mesodermal and ectodermal cell lineages; a special emphasis was given to their phenotypic and ultrastructural properties. Expression of embryonic stem cell markers Oct4, Rex-1, FoxD-3, Sox2, and Nanog was shown with real-time PCR. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the ultrastructural characteristics of hBM-MSCs; they had pale, irregularly shaped and large euchromatic nuclei, and two distinct areas in their cytoplasm: an intensely stained inner zone rich in mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) with dilated cisternae and a relatively peripheral zone poor in organelles. hBM-MSCs expressed adipogenic (adipophilin and PPAR gamma), myogenic (desmin, myogenin, alpha-SMA), neurogenic (gamma-enolase, MAP2a, b, c-fos, nestin, NF-H, NF-L, GFAP, beta 3-tubulin), osteogenic (osteonectin, osteocalcin, osteopontin, Runx-2, type I collagen), and chondrogenic (type II collagen, SOX9) markers either at RNA or protein level even under basal conditions, without any stimulation towards differentiation. The differentiation potential of hBM-MSCs to adipogenic, osteogenic, and neurogenic lineages was shown by using the relevant differentiation factors. J. Cell. Physiol. 226: 1367-1382, 2011. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.