<p>A novel integrated approach of ELM and modified equilibrium optimizer for predicting soil compression index of subgrade layer of Dedicated Freight Corridor</p>

Bardhan A., GuhaRay A., Gupta S., Pradhan B., GÖKÇEOĞLU C.

TRANSPORTATION GEOTECHNICS, vol.32, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 32
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.trgeo.2021.100678
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Geobase, INSPEC
  • Keywords: Subgrade layer design, Railway embankment, Soft computing, Consolidation parameter, Meta-heuristic optimization, Indian Railways, Swarm intelligence, PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION, ARTIFICIAL NEURAL-NETWORK, VECTOR MACHINE, ALGORITHM, FLYROCK, EVOLUTIONARY, PERFORMANCE, FORMULATION
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


This study proposes a high-performance machine learning model to sidestep the time of conducting actual laboratory tests of soil compression index (Cc), one of the important criteria for determining the settlement of subgrade layers of roadways, railways, and airport runways. The suggested method combines the modified equilibrium optimizer (MEO) and the extreme learning machine (ELM) in a novel way. In this study, Gaussian mutation with an exploratory search mechanism was incorporated to construct the MEO and used to enhance the performance of conventional ELM by optimizing its learning parameters. PCA (Principal component analysis) based results exhibit that the developed ELM-MEO attained the most precise prediction with R-2 = 0.9746, MAE = 0.0184, and RMSE = 0.0284 in training, and R-2 = 0.9599, MAE = 0.0232, and RMSE = 0.0357 in the testing phase. The results showed that the proposed ELM-MEO model outperformed the other developed models, confirming the ELM-MEO model's superiority over the other models, such as random forest, gradient boosting machine, genetic programming, including the ELM and artificial neural network (ANN)-based models optimized with equilibrium optimizer, particle swarm optimization, Harris hawks optimization, slime mould algorithm, and marine predators algorithm. Based on the experimental results, the proposed ELM-MEO can be used as a promising alternative to predict soil C-c in civil engineering projects, including rail and road projects.