No previous significant and detailed botanical study exists on Ballota nigra L. subsp. anatolica P.H. Davis, which is endemic in Turkey and is used in folk medicine. B. nigra has been reported as Marrrbium nigrum and it is difficult to separate from Stachys. The aim of this study is to provide information on the anatomical, morphological, and cytological properties of Ballota nigra subsp. anatolica. Phytochemical screening methods were also applied for identifying the major chemical groups in this species. Chromosome shapes and chromosome number were determined. Flavonoids, phenylpropanoid heterosides, tannins, saponins, volatile oil, terpenic compounds, and sugars were detected in the aerial parts of the plant.