Housing Outcomes in Turkey: How Do Middle-Income Households Fare?

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Friedman S., Kurtulus A., KOÇ İ.

CITY & COMMUNITY, vol.19, no.4, pp.1038-1059, 2020 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 19 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/cico.12483
  • Journal Name: CITY & COMMUNITY
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, IBZ Online, Public Affairs Index, Sociological abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1038-1059
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Despite the doubling in size of the middle class and the significant housing increase in Turkey, little research has examined housing outcomes of middle-income households, particularly relative to affluent households. The housing increase and 2007 Mortgage Law could have reduced housing differences between middle-income and affluent households, but the rise in gated communities could have increased these differences. Using data from Turkey's 2012 Household and Budget Survey, we find that middle-income households are significantly less likely than affluent households to own their homes and live in larger homes, and among owner-occupiers, in homes of higher value. Less pronounced differences are found in their residence in newer homes. Fewer differences in housing outcomes exist between middle- and lower-income households, particularly among owner-occupiers. These results suggest that the most affluent households, rather than the poorest households, are likely isolating themselves from other households, thereby affecting the future well-being of middle-income households.