The serum plasminogen status in 35 preterm infants with or without respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) was determined in the first few hours of life. Blood smaples for plasminogen testing (Synthetic chromogenic substrate method; Stachorm PLG. Diagnostica Stage) were obtained from a peripheral vein within six hours after birth. Among 35 infants, 20 infants who were in stable clinical condition served as the control group. Fifteen developed RDS with clinical, laboratory and radiological findings. The mean plasma plasminogen levels were found to be similar in the two groups (p > 0.05 by Mann-Whitney U test). These findings are discussed along with our previous findings showing normal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) but lower D-dimer and higher plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) levels within the first few hours of life in preterm infants who later developed RDS compared to the control group.