The COVID-19 pandemic process may affect the physical and psychosocial health in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to compare the quality of life, physical activity, fear of COVID-19 and mental health in CKD patients and healthy individualsand compare the aforementioned parameters in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and renal transplantation (RTx) patients during the pandemic. Eighty-two patients (33 ESRD, 49 RTx) and age-gender matched 108 healthy individuals were included. Quality of life (Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire-SF-36), physical activity (short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire -IPAQ-SF), fear of COVID-19 (Fear of COVID-19 Scale-FCV-19S) and mental health (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-HADS) were evaluated. Physical activity levels and all SF-36 scores except mental health in CKD patients were significantly lower than healthy individuals (p < 0.05). FCV-19S and HADS scores were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). ESRD patients' pain and general health perceptions scores of SF-36 were lower than RTx patients' (p < 0.05). Quality of life and physical activity levels were worse in CKD patients compared to healthy individuals during the pandemic. The participants had fear of COVID-19, poor mental health and low physical activity. For these reasons, psychosocial and physical activity interventions for the both groups may be beneficial for the affected outcomes during COVID-19 pandemic.