OBJECTIVES: The etiology of schizophrenia is unknown. However, some of the neuropathological changes in schizophrenia may be the result of increased free radical-mediated or reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated neurotoxicity. Melatonin is a hormone produced especially at night in the pineal gland; additionally is a highly important antioxidant. The aim of this study is to indicate the contribution effect of the neuropathophysiology of schizophrenia and protective effects of melatonin against this oxidative damaged. MK-801 induced selective neurotoxicity has been proposed as an animal model for psychosis.