Effects of toluidine blue O and methylene blue on growth and viability of pancreatic cancer cells


BİBEROĞLU K., YÜKSEL M., ÖNDER S., TACAL Ö.

DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/ddr.21915
  • Journal Name: DRUG DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: amyloid precursor-like protein-2, methylene blue, pancreatic cancer, phenothiazines, toluidine blue O, beta-secretase, AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN, BETA-SECRETASE, TAU-AGGREGATION, INHIBITION, APLP2, GENE, PHENOTHIAZINES, PROLIFERATION, CYTOTOXICITY, EXPRESSION

Abstract

Amyloid precursor-like protein-2 (APLP2) and its C-terminal fragments (CTFs) are expressed at high levels in pancreatic cancer cells and knockdown of APLP2 expression inhibits tumor growth. CTFs are released from APLP2 by beta-secretase (BACE). In this study, our goal was to determine whether methylene blue (MethB) and toluidine blue O (TBO) could be used to slow down the growth and viability of pancreatic cancer cells (Hs 766T). We found that TBO and MethB decreased the growth and viability of Hs 766T cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to vehicle-treated control, as demonstrated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays. Although TBO led to decreased expression of APLP2, MethB did not show any significant effect on APLP2. However, both MethB and TBO reduced BACE activity and the levels of APLP2 CTFs in Hs 766T cells. In conclusion, MethB and TBO may be valuable candidates for the treatment of pancreatic cancer by targeting APLP2 processing.