The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dentinal tubule penetration of root canal sealers after root canal dressing with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)). Forty-two single-rooted teeth were instrumented to size 60. Six teeth served as the control group, and the remaining teeth were assigned to two groups. Root canals of the first group were filled with the Ca(OH)(2) paste; the second group was filled with TempCanal, and all were incubated for 7 days. The samples were either irrigated with only NaOCl or with EDTA, followed by NaOCl to remove Ca(OH)(2), All of the teeth were obturated with CRCS, AH26, and Ketac Endo by a lateral condensation technique. The specimens were then kept at the same conditions for another 7 days, and then all of the roots were prepared for scanning electron microscopic evaluation. Scanning electron microscopic examination revealed that Ca(OH)(2) was not completely removed from the root canal surfaces, and root canal sealers did not penetrate into the dentinal tubules when only NaOCl was used. EDTA followed by NaOCl irrigation resulted in complete removal of Ca(OH)(2) and root canal sealers penetrated into the dentinal tubules.