Paracaryum is a distinctive genus that includes many endemic taxa, and several of these endemics from the Irano-Turanian phytogeographical region are of special interest. In Turkey, the genus includes 28 species, of which 21 are endemic. Paracaryum leptophyllum, Paracaryum ponticum and Paracaryum artvinense occur in northeastern Turkey. The nomenclature, lectotypification, morphology and conservation status of these taxa are examined in the current study. According to these data, P. ponticum must be treated as a distinct species; P. artvinense must be reduced to synonymy with P. ponticum. In this study, P. ponticum and P. leptophyllum are re-classified at the subgenus level, and the lectotypifications of the names are designated. The amended descriptions in comparison with the related species P. ponticum and P. leptophyllum, an identification key, nutlet pictures and a chorological note are provided. The conservation status of these taxa is discussed.