Effects of sprouting and fermentation on the formation of Maillard reaction products in different cereals heated as wholemeal


FOOD CHEMISTRY, vol.389, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 389
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133075
  • Journal Name: FOOD CHEMISTRY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Sprouted grains, Wholemeal, Thermal processing, Maillard reaction, Early glycation, Advanced glycation, alpha-Dicarbonyl compounds, BAKING CONDITIONS, BUCKWHEAT, BREAD, ACID, DEGRADATION, QUERCETIN, FLOUR, WHEAT, FOOD, ACRYLAMIDE
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The concentration and composition of reducing sugars and free amino acids as Maillard reaction (MR) precursors change with grain sprouting. The formation of early and advanced glycation products, and alpha-dicarbonyl compounds as intermediates were monitored during heating native and sprouted wholemeals, as well as during heating of yeast and sourdough fermented native and sprouted wholemeals. Sprouting increased the concentration of all MR products because of an increase in reducing sugar concentrations. Although reducing sugars were lowered due to their consumption by yeasts, fermentation did not lower the furosine concentration. Sourdough fermentation unexpectedly increased furosine because the low pH caused glucose release from polysaccharides. Glyoxal, methylglyoxal and diacetyl were found to be formed as metabolites during yeast and sourdough fermentation. Another factor affecting the MR in sprouted/fermented wholemeals was revealed to be the increased amount of total free amino acids that compete with bound lysine to react with reducing sugars.