Türk Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, cilt.18, ss.392-414, 2020 (Hakemli Üniversite Dergisi)
Tarama deseniyle yürütülen bu araştırmanın amacı hizmet öncesi öğretmen adaylarının bir matematik öğretmeni olarak kendilerine ve matematiği öğrenen öğrenciye yönelik imajlarını incelemektedir. Araştırmaya 424 hizmet öncesi öğretmen adayı katılmıştır. Verileri toplamak projektif bir test olan çizim testi kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde temalar ve kodlar belirlenmiş, frekans ve yüzdelere yer verilmiştir. Kendilerini matematik öğretmeni olarak hayal ettikleri çizimlerinde matematik öğretmeninin en çok ders anlattığını, öğrencilerin en çok ders dinlediğini ifade etmişlerdir. En az, matematik öğretmeninin olumsuz duyguya sahip olduğu ve sınav yaptığını; matematiği öğrenen öğrencilerin derse ilgisiz ya da sınav olduğunu ifade etmişlerdir. Matematik öğretmeninin çoğunlukla güleryüzlü, ayakta olduğu ve yazı tahtalarına daha çok dört işlem ifadelerini yazdığını gösteren çizimler yapmışlardır. Matematiği öğrenen öğrencilerin çoğunlukla sıralarında olduğunu göstermişlerdir. Bu çalışmanın bulgularının matematik programları, matematik eğitimi, öğretmen eğitimi ve imajlar konusunda çalışma yapacak olan araştırmacılara, eğitimcilere ve politika yapıcılara katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir.
In higher education institutions that train prospective teachers, it is necessary to ensure that
prospective teachers get to know their profession and to improve their perspectives on students. On the
other hand, McDiarmid (1990) emphasizes the importance of knowing the cognitive and affective knowledge of prospective teachers (Baydar and Bulut, 2002). These experiences emphasize the image
concept. Picture; it has a cognitive and emotional component that includes mental representation and
attitude, emotions, anxiety, pleasure and fear. The image can be explained both by drawing and
sentences (Sam, 1999). The aim of the present study is to determine the attitudes of the prospective
teachers who are studying in the departments of elementary mathematics education, science education,
and primary school education towards the mathematics teacher and the student who learns the
mathematics when they start and complete the teacher training programs. In this context, an in-depth
understanding was tried to be revealed for the cognitive and affective acquisitions of prospective
teachers for mathematics teachers and students learning mathematics. The determination of the
prospective teachers' images towards the mathematics teacher and the student learning mathematics is
important in terms of demonstrating the points that teacher education should focus on and developing
the teacher training program because while developing the program, dealing with the needs of teacher
candidates in the context of determining the needs of individuals; it ensures that pre-service teachers
participate effectively in the process by determining the target location and planning activities. This
study will contribute to the field on account of the fact that it determines the cognitive and affective
knowledge of the prospective teachers about the mathematics teacher and the student who learns the
mathematics, gives an idea about what the prospective teachers will do when they become in-service
teachers, shows the field knowledge that the prospective teachers have on the mathematics which will
be taught at the beginning and at the end of the program, evaluates the attitudes of the prospective
teachers towards the students who learn the mathematics, and identifies how well the prospective
teachers know their profession. This study aims to investigate the images of first- and fourth-year
elementary mathematics, science and elementary education teacher candidates about mathematics
teachers and students.
In the survey research, it was tried to describe the perceptions of teacher candidates about
mathematics teachers and students. 424 teacher candidates participated in the study. Data were collected
by using a drawing form for teacher candidates. For the analyses of data, themes and codes were
identified, and percentages were reported for the statements “often, rarely and never”. In their drawings
where they imagined themselves as mathematics teachers, they most commonly represented the
mathematics teacher as lecturing. At least, they stated that the mathematics teacher has a negative feeling
and makes the exam. They made drawings that showed that the mathematics teacher was mostly
smiling, standing and writing four operations on the whiteboards. The fact that pre-service teachers
express that the teachers teach lessons is similar to Güven and Karataş's (2004) research. In a study with
students, it was mentioned that students prefer student-centered teaching (Gökçek & Güneş, 2011).
Toluk-Uçar, Pişkin, Akkaş and Taşçı (2010) also stated that students use positive qualifications for the teachers they want to have while describing their teachers with negative qualifications. Gökçek and
Güneş (2011) and Özyıldırım-Gümüş, Acar and Yetkin-Özdemir (2015) also stated that students want to
see their teachers while teaching enjoyable lessons. In this context, it can be said that pre-service teachers
prefer traditional education, although students want student-centered education. The reason for this
may be due to the fact that pre-service teachers are trained with traditional education or the teaching
methods and techniques that make the student effective in the undergraduate programs are not included
in the center. In their drawings where they imagined themselves as mathematics teachers, they most
commonly represented the students as listening to the lecture. At least, they stated that the students
learning mathematics were indifferent to the lesson or had an exam. They showed that students learning
mathematics were mostly on their desks. The fact that pre-service teachers express that the students
listen to lessons is similar to Güven and Karataş's (2004) research. In the research of Güven and Karataş
(2004), it is stated that traditional, teacher-centered classroom environments are reflected. In this context,
it can be said that teacher candidates tend to traditional approach. This may be due to the fact that
teacher candidates are trained with a traditional approach or the teaching methods and techniques that
place the student in the undergraduate programs are not sufficiently included.
In line with the results obtained in the study conducted to reveal how the pre-service teachers'
images towards the mathematics teacher and the student learning the mathematics, the suggestions for
the research are as follows; The reasons why they dream of their students while listening to the lesson
can be explored as the teachers of the future. For this, interviews or observations can be made. Teaching
practices can be observed. Observations can be made in the lessons by examining the teaching profession
curriculum. Since this may be due to the lessons being taught in teacher training programs, opinions can
be obtained from prospective teachers. In addition, because the mathematics teacher and the students
do in the drawings of prospective teachers; a similar study can be repeated by increasing the number of
participants in order to reveal whether there is a significant difference according to the program and
grade level they are studying. Since the number of pores less than five in the expected value exceeds
20% in this study, it was not possible to make a chi-square and it was not possible to determine whether
there was any difference according to the program type and the grade level. Practical suggestions that
can be expressed in line with the results of the research are as follows; While teaching themselves as the
teachers of the future, they saw their students while listening to the lessons and turned towards a
teacher-centered approach. This may require a revision of teacher training programs. To this end, they
can be encouraged to do their teaching practices in order to create a learning environment that their
students will discover and learn under their guidance in the future. In teaching profession lessons, it can
be emphasized what such an approach may result. Teacher trainers can also be models in field education,
teaching professional knowledge and general culture courses.