Properties of geopolymers sourced from construction and demolition waste: A review

Alhawat M., Ashour A., Yildirim G., ALDEMİR A., ŞAHMARAN M.

JOURNAL OF BUILDING ENGINEERING, vol.50, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 50
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jobe.2022.104104
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Keywords: Geopolymer concrete, Mechanical properties, Construction and demolition waste (CDW), Mix design, Sodium silicate, Life cycle assessment, BLAST-FURNACE SLAG, EARLY STRENGTH PROPERTIES, MIX DESIGN PROCEDURE, C-AND-D, FLY-ASH, RECYCLED CONCRETE, MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES, COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH, PORTLAND-CEMENT, CERAMIC WASTE
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Geopolymers have been recognised as a viable replacement to ordinary Portland cement (OPC), providing a cleaner solution since it can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as accomplishing effective waste recycling. Construction and demolition waste (CDW) has been recently identified as raw materials for geopolymers due to its availability and high contents of silica and alumina. This paper aimed at reviewing the current state-of-the-art on the geopolymer paste, mortar, and concrete production and their properties, with special attention paid to geopolymers incorporating CDWs. The review covers brief assessment of using CDWs in concrete, the mix design of geopolymer mixtures in addition to identification of the main factors influencing the performance of geopolymer containing CDW. The most recent data related to the mechanical and durability properties of CDW-based geopolymers are presented, while the cost and environmental impacts of using recycled materials in producing geopolymer concretes are also discussed. Geopolymer concretes have a vast range of possible applications, however, there are still several barriers facing commercialisation of geopolymers in construction industry. The review indicated that it is possible to produce geopolymer concretes from CDW-based materials with properties comparable to OPC-based ones; however, the selection of proper material composition should be carefully considered, especially under normal curing conditions.