The aim of this study was to provide current information about the health profile and needs of mainstreamed primary school children with disabilities and special educational needs during their school hours. The Study population is composed of students with special educational needs and disabilities attending mainstream primary schools located in three selected Turkish districts with low, moderate, and high socioeconomic status and literacy rates separately. Parents of 404 students from 72 primary schools constituted the research sample. The study showed that 13.4% of the students with disabilities had chronic illnesses and 8.9% had health problems requiring access to emergency medical care when the condition recurs (such as epileptic seizures, fainting, or falling). Of the students with disabilities, 39.9% usually or sometimes needed medical care during school hours in the previous week. Health needs of nearly half of the students with disabilities were met at school. Special health needs and risks of children with disabilities also continue at school along with other possible health concerns.