Effect of salts on the formation of acrylamide, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and flavour compounds in a crust-like glucose/wheat flour dough system during heating

Göncüoğlu Taş N., KOCADAĞLI T., Balagiannis D. P., GÖKMEN V., Parker J. K.

Food Chemistry, vol.410, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 410
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.135358
  • Journal Name: Food Chemistry
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Maillard reaction, Caramelisation, Process contaminants, Sugar degradation, Baking, Aroma, Strecker aldehydes, Pyrazines, Calcium
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Among many strategies known to mitigate acrylamide formation, addition of cations, particularly calcium, is effective and can be used in bakery products. In this study, the effects of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, sodium lactate, calcium lactate, and magnesium lactate on aroma and acrylamide formation were investigated in glucose/wheat flour dough systems during heating. Addition of salts inhibited Maillard reaction in favour of caramelisation, with divalent cations found to be most effective. The impact of salts on acrylamide reduction became less effective with increasing temperature. Most Strecker aldehydes and pyrazines decreased in the presence of salts, however CaCl2 and calcium lactate increased the concentration of furans, furfurals, and diketones. Calcium lactate also increased some ethyl-substituted pyrazines at high temperatures. Reduction of acrylamide with salts is associated with higher amounts of furan derivatives and decreased amounts of Strecker aldehydes and pyrazines. The mechanisms behind these changes are discussed.