Immunodeficiency patients with DNA repair defects exhibit radiosensitivity and proneness to leukemia/lymphoma formation. Though progress has been made in identifying the underlying mutations, in most patients the genetic basis is unknown. Two de novo mutated candidate genes, MCM3AP encoding germinal center-associated nuclear protein (GANP) and POMP encoding proteasome maturation protein (POMP), were identified by whole-exome sequencing (WES) and confirmed by Sanger sequencing in a child with complex phenotype displaying immunodeficiency, genomic instability, skin changes, and myelodysplasia. GANP was previously described to promote B-cell maturation by nuclear targeting of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and to control AID-dependent hyperrecombination. POMP is required for 20S proteasome assembly and, thus, for efficient NF-B signaling. Patient-derived cells were characterized by impaired homologous recombination, moderate radio- and cross-linker sensitivity associated with accumulation of damage, impaired DNA damage-induced NF-B signaling, and reduced nuclear AID levels. Complementation by wild-type (WT)-GANP normalized DNA repair and WT-POMP rescued defective NF-B signaling. In conclusion, we identified for the first time mutations in MCM3AP and POMP in an immunodeficiency patient. These mutations lead to cooperative effects on DNA recombination and damage signaling. Digenic/polygenic mutations may constitute a novel genetic basis in immunodeficiency patients with DNA repair defects. (C) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.