Markers in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

Armutcu F., Akyol S., Ucar F., Erdogan S., AKYOL Ö.

ADVANCES IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY, VOL 61, vol.61, pp.67-125, 2013 (SCI-Expanded) identifier


Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common liver disorder worldwide, encompasses a spectrum of abnormal liver histology ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Population studies show that NAFLD is strongly associated with insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and lipid abnormalities. In the context of hepatic steatosis, factors that promote cell injury, inflammation, and fibrosis include oxidative stress, early mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, iron accumulation, apoptosis, adipocytokines, and stellate cell activation. The exact NASH prevalence is unknown because of the absence of simple noninvasive diagnostic tests. Although liver biopsy is the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of NASH, other tests are needed to facilitate the diagnosis and greatly reduce the requirement for invasive liver biopsy. In addition, the development of new fibrosis markers in NASH is needed to facilitate the assessment of its progression and the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this chapter, which is overview of biomarkers in NASH, is to establish a systematic approach to laboratory findings of the disease.