INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICS, vol.626, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
Toxoplasmosis is a global health problem affecting both human and animal populations. The lack of effective treatment makes the development of a vaccine against toxoplasmosis one of the main goals in the management of this disease. In our study, vaccine formulations containing the multistage recombinant antigens, rBAG1 + rGRA1 were developed with a combined adjuvant system consisting of chitosan and Salmonella Typhi porins in micro (MicroAS) and nanoparticulate (NanoAS) forms. BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally with vaccine formulations two times at three-week intervals. Three weeks after the second vaccination, mice were challenged with 7-8 live tissue cysts of the virulent T. gondii PRU strain by oral gavage. Higher cellular uptake by macro-phages and enhanced cellular (IFN-gamma and I-4 in stimulated spleen cells) and humoral (IgG, IgG1, IgG2a) responses were obtained with the adjuvanted formulation, higher with microsystem when compared to that of nanosystem. Microsystem was found to stimulate Th1-polarized immune responses, whereas non-adjuvanted antigens stim-ulated Th2-polarized immune response. The highest survival rate and reduction in cysts numbers and T. gondii DNA were obtained with the adjuvanted antigens. Our study showed that adjuvanted multistage recombinant vaccine systems increase the immune response with strong protection against T. gondii, more profoundly in microparticulate form.