Investigating the surface dose contribution of intrafractional kV imaging in CyberKnife-based stereotactic radiosurgery

Canbolat A., Zorlu F., HÜRMÜZ P., YEĞİNER M., ÖZYİĞİT G.

MEDICAL DOSIMETRY, vol.42, no.4, pp.304-309, 2017 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 42 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.meddos.2017.06.005
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.304-309


CyberKnife treatment consists of hundreds of noncoplanar beams and numerous intrafractional images that can be taken during a single treatment fraction; thus, doses because of imaging should be considered in this technique. The aim of this study is to investigate the in-field and out-of-field surface doses induced from kV imaging system during stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment. The imaging-induced surface doses were measured at the center of the imaging field and within +/- 15-cm distance from the center in both craniocaudal and lateral directions. TLD100H thermoluminescence dosimeters and EBT2 gafchromic films were used to take the measurements at the locations of 0, +/- 5, +/- 10, and +/- 15 cm in the 2 orthogonal directions on abdominal region of a Rando phantom. The surface dose contributions of imaging system for the 4 most commonly used energy options of 90, 100, 110, and 120 kVp with 3 mAs options of 10, 30, and 90 mAs were measured and compared. Imaging dose values have a positive correlation with both parameters of energy and mAs. The energy options of 100, 110, and 120 kVp, in average, induced 60%, 101%, and 141% more doses per mAs than 90 kVp energy in the imaging field center. A threefold increase in mAs values, i.e., from 10 mAs to 30 mAs and from 30 mAs to 90 mAs, caused higher dose in field center with a factor of 2.53 +/- 0.08 when the energy value was kept constant. The in-field dose distributions within +/- 10 cm in both directions showed a flat pattern with a standard deviation lower than 5%, whereas the out-of-field doses at +/- 15-cm distance from the field center suddenly dropped to almost half of the central doses. Although a single imaging attempt causes a very low dose compared with the therapeutic dose level, one should be aware of the cumulative surface dose increase with higher imaging number. Proper patient setup, fiducial usage, and reduction of both the mAs values and the imaging numbers should be, therefore, considered to keep the cumulative surface dose in a lower level. (C) 2017 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists.