Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among University Students in Usak, Turkey

KAMACI S., ŞANLI S., ÖZDEMİR A., Sardogan S., Erdogan S., Sanli N.

JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, vol.32, no.22, pp.135-142, 2020 (ESCI) identifier


Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as a pandemic with implications for multi-organ systems including bone health and immunological processes. Low levels have been associated with several chronic and infectious diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among university students in Usak, Turkey. This cross-sectional study included 100 (44 male and 56 female) university students between January 2020 to February 2020. Demographics, medical history, sunlight exposure, dietary vitamin D intake, body mass index of each individual were recorded in face-to-face interviews. Subjects with known metabolic conditions affecting vitamin D metabolism were excluded. Vitamin D nutritional status was assessed as deficient if 25(OH)D levels were <20ng/mL, insufficient if between 20 and 30 ng/mL, sufficient if >= 30 ng/mL, while <10ng/mL was considered as severe. The mean age for all students was 20.18 +/- 1.77(18-30) years. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 11.60 +/- 9.81 among all students (12.22 +/- 5.40 ng/mL in males, 11.11 +/- 12.24 ng/ml in females). 91 students (91%) were assessed as vitamin D deficient (92.86% among female, 88.64% among male, P>.05). Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency among male students were 11.36 and 88.64%, respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent among medical students included in this study and its deficiency especially among female students is alarmingly prevalent. Absence of vitamin D fortified foods in Turkish market is shortcoming. Therefore, preventive strategies parallel to regular vitamin D fortified food consumption is seriously recommended.