Volcanological evolution of Mount Erciyes stratovolcano and origin of the Valibaba Tepe ignimbrite (Central Anatolia, Turkey)


Sen E., Kurkcuoglu B., Aydar E., Gourgaud A., Vincent P.

JOURNAL OF VOLCANOLOGY AND GEOTHERMAL RESEARCH, vol.125, pp.225-246, 2003 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 125
  • Publication Date: 2003
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/s0377-0273(03)00110-0
  • Journal Name: JOURNAL OF VOLCANOLOGY AND GEOTHERMAL RESEARCH
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.225-246
  • Keywords: Anatolia, turkey, Erciyes, Valibaba Tepe, stratovolcano, ignimbrite, caldera, MEDITERRANEAN REGION, ACTIVE TECTONICS, VOLCANIC-ROCKS, ERUPTION, PLATE, ZONE, DEPOSITS, EXAMPLE, CALDERA, COMPLEX

Abstract

Mount Erciyes (3917 m) is the largest stratovolcano of Central Anatolia (Turkey). The volcanological evolution of Mount Erciyes from Pliocene-Quaternary to historical times exhibits two distinct stages: (1) Koc Dag and (2) Erciyes. During the Koc Dag stage, basaltic and andesitic lava flows were emitted from the cinder cones of Kizil Tepe and Topakkaya Tepe. Then, Koc Dag pyroclastics were emplaced, leading to a caldera collapse of 14 x 18 km in diameter with a volume estimated at 110 km(3). Two eruption phases separated by scoria fall and mud flow deposits are recognised associated with the caldera forming event. During Phase 1, plinian fall and pumice flows were emplaced on the eastern part of the volcano. Plinian fall deposits occur more than 50 km away from the source area. The volume of tephra is estimated at 63.3 km(3) (16 km(3) dense rock equivalent (DRE)), including 62 km(3) of plinian fall and 1.3 km(3) pumice flow deposits. Phase 2 mainly consists of pyroclastic flow deposits (two pumiceous flow units and Valibaba Tepe Ignimbrite (VTI)). The pumiceous flow deposits (4.2 km(3) DRE) extend 30 km from the inferred source area towards the north and northeast. The final pyroclastic flows of Phase 2 occurred 2.8 Ma ago and produced the VTL The VTI is a low aspect ratio welded ignimbrite and its volume is estimated at 40 km(3) DRE. Plinian fall deposits (0.8 km(3) DRE) preceded the VTI and are only observed on the eastern part of the volcano, covering an area of 1500 km(2). During the Erciyes stage, two eruptive cycles are defined. The first cycle (2.6-0.17 Ma) is characterised by effusive, extrusive and weakly explosive activity with emplacement of andesitic lava flows, dacitic dome flows, basaltic andesite lava flows, and andesitic cones. The second cycle involved dacitic extrusive and explosive activity, located at the summit area, and produced block-and-ash flows derived from rhyodacitic domes. Plinian fall, surge and pumice flow deposits were emplaced prior to rhyodacitic dome extrusions. The last, event was the emplacement of debris avalanche deposits related to sector collapse caldera. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.