Nano drug delivery systems and gamma radiation sterilization

Sakar F., Özer A. Y., Erdoğan S., Ekizoğlu M., Kart D., Özalp M., ...More

PHARMACEUTICAL DEVELOPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY, vol.22, no.6, pp.775-784, 2017 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 22 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.3109/10837450.2016.1163393
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.775-784
  • Keywords: Chitosan microparticles, gamma radiation sterilization, liposomes, niosomes, sphingosomes, IRRADIATION, CHITOSAN, LIPOSOMES, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, RELEASE
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


In recent years, drug delivery systems such as liposomes and microparticles have been used in clinic for the treatment of different diseases and from a regulatory point of view, a parenterally applied drug and drug delivery systems must be sterile and pyrogen free. Radiation sterilization is a method recognized by pharmacopoeias to achieve sterility criteria of parenterals. It has the ability to kill microorganisms in therapeutic products. The ability of, however, irradiation might also affect the performance of drug delivery systems. One of the most critical points is irradiation dose, because certain undesirable chemical and physical changes may accompany with the irradiation, especially with the traditionally applied dose of 25kGy. Its ionizing property may cause fragmentation of covalent bond. The care must be paid to the applied dose. In this research, the effects of gamma irradiation on different drug delivery systems such as chitosan microparticles, liposomes, niosomes and sphingosomes were investigated. According to the experimental data, it can be concluded that gamma irradiation can be a suitable sterilization technique for liposome, niosome and sphingosome dispersions. When all irradiated drug carrier systems were taken into consideration, chitosan glutamate microparticles were found as the most radioresistant drug delivery system among the others.