Healthcare workers may be exposed to various aerosols formed during patient care and treatment. Transmission of bacterial or viral infections to the healthcare staff by this route can be life threatening. Worldwide, many national and international occupational health and safety organizations consider medical masks and respirators as an important element of protecting healthcare workers against exposure to hazardous aerosol particles. With the recent COVID-19 pandemic, the features and standards of masks that should be used in different settings have become an important topic of discussion. The masks produced in compliance with standards are widely used against harmful aerosols and protect the user when properly installed. These medical and respiratory masks are among the important personal protection equipment widely used in healthcare to prevent transmission of bacterial and viral infections as well as COVID-19. Here, it was aimed to review the structural features and performance test standards of the masks used during medical procedures.