Pharmacodynamic comparison of a nasal formulation of verapamil and intravenous and oral dosage forms

Yazan Y., Ozer A. Y., Erol K.

DRUG DEVELOPMENT AND INDUSTRIAL PHARMACY, vol.22, no.3, pp.281-284, 1996 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


The nasal route has been shown to be effective for the administration of numerous drugs in order to improve drug bioavailability. A nasal gel of verapamil hydrochloride was formulated and evaluated pharmacodynamically in humans, using electrocardiographic results, with comparison to oral and IV routes. Seven volunteers were involved in the study and the pharmacodynamic parameters were evaluated statistically. Experimental nasal gel showed similar pharmacodynamic results with the intravenous route, which is a hint to the reduction in verapamil-induced first-pass metabolism. However, oral route of administration showed a tendency of less efficacy. No reasonable effect of verapamil could be obtained with the placebo group.