For almost all patients with PKU, a low phenylalanine diet is the basis of the treatment despite a widely varying natural protein tolerance. A vitamin and mineral supplement is essential and it is commonly added to a phenylalanine-free (phe-free) source of L-amino acids. In PKU, many phe-free L-amino acid supplements have age-specific vitamin and mineral profiles to meet individual requirements. The main micronutrient sources are chemically derived and their delivery dosage is usually advised in three or more doses throughout the day. Within the EU, the composition of VM (vitamin and mineral) phe-free L-amino acid supplements is governed by the Foods for Special Medical Purposes (FSMP) directive (European Commission Directive number 1999/21/EC and amended by Directive 2006/141/EC). However the micronutrient composition of the majority fails to remain within FSMP micronutrient maximum limits per 100 kcal due to their low energy content and so compositional exceptions to the FSMP directive have to be granted for each supplement. All patients with PKU require an annual nutritional follow-up, until it has been proven that they are not at risk of any vitamin and mineral imbalances. When non-dietary treatments are used to either replace or act as an adjunct to diet therapy, the quality of micronutrient intake should still be considered important and monitored systematically. European guidelines are required about which micronutrients should be measured and the conditions (fasting status) for monitoring. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.