Evaluation of risk factors for developing COVID-19 in healthcare professionals working at two university hospitals in Turkey.

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Sertçelik A., Cakir B., Metan G.

Work (Reading, Mass.), vol.74, no.3, pp.799-809, 2023 (SSCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 74 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3233/wor-220053
  • Journal Name: Work (Reading, Mass.)
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, ABI/INFORM, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, CINAHL, Educational research abstracts (ERA), Environment Index, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Psycinfo
  • Page Numbers: pp.799-809
  • Keywords: Case-control, personal protective equipment, health personnel, protective measure, mask
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) were seriously affected by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is a priority to protect HCWs against COVID-19 and ensure the continuity of the health care system. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk factors for COVID-19 in HCWs and the effectiveness of the measures taken on protection. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted in two hospitals serving on the same campus which are affiliated with a university from Turkey, between 03.12.2020 and 05.22.2020. We aimed to recruit three controls working in the same unit with the cases diagnosed with COVID-19 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and whose SARS-CoV-2 PCR test is negative. Self-reported data were collected from the HCWs by the face-to-face method. Descriptive and analytical methods were used and a logistic regression model was built. Results: The study was completed with 271 HCWs, 72 cases, and 199 controls. Household contact with a COVID-19 patient or a patient with symptoms compatible with COVID-19 was found to be significantly higher in the cases than in the controls (p = 0.02, p <  0.001). When the measures for control the COVID-19 were analyzed, using a medical mask (OR = 0.28, 95% confidence interval = 0.11–0.76, p = 0.01) by COVID-19 patient and using the respiratory mask by HCWs (OR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.03–0.52, p = 0.004) during close contact was found to be protective against COVID-19 transmission. Conclusion: This study showed an association with using medical masks by the patients as an important protective precaution for the transmission of COVID-19 to HCWs. Respiratory masks should be used by HCWs while in close contact with COVID-19 patients regardless of aerosol-producing procedures.