3D bioprinting for the endocrine glands

Gokyurek M., Yilmaz K. B., Yilgor Huri P.

EMERGENT MATERIALS, vol.3, no.4, pp.441-452, 2020 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 3 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s42247-020-00085-2
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.441-452
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: No


Endocrine glands regulate homeostasis of the body with the hormones they secrete. Regeneration and/or replacement of malfunctioning endocrine glands is a global need since the diseases associated with them affect more people year by year. Tissue engineering is an emerging promising field for the patients who suffer organ failure with recent pioneering clinical applications. Success in tissue engineering strategy depends on the use of proper cells, bioactive factors that stimulate the activities of these cells, and scaffolds that are produced to recapitulate the structure and support the function of engineered tissues. 3D bioprinting is a developing strategy for the production of living tissues by using bioinks to produce the cell-laden scaffolds in a layer-by-layer procedure. In this review, major endocrine glands, their functionalities, and tissue engineering strategies to produce them are covered with special emphasis to their biofabrication through 3D bioprinting.