An International Working Group for Treatment Optimization in MS met to recommend evidence-based therapeutic options for the management of suboptimal responses or intolerable side-effects in patients treated with disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) for multiple sclerosis (MS). Several DMDs are now available for the treatment of MS that have been shown to alter the clinical course of the disease by decreasing disease activity and delaying the progression of disability. Nevertheless, many patients continue to experience disease activity whilst on treatment, and recommendations have been made on how the success of therapy in an individual patient can be assessed. However, even after having identified criteria for a suboptimal response to current treatments, clinicians require guidance on how to improve the outcomes. This report summarizes the conclusions from a workshop at which this issue was addressed. We suggest treatment pathways for optimizing therapy for those patients with suboptimal responses to DMDs, and therapeutic options for patients with unacceptable side-effects on their current therapy.