Adipose tissue contains adult mesenchymal stem cells that may modulate the metabolism when applied to other tissues. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) can be isolated from adipose tissue mechanically and/or enzymatically. SVF was recently used to decrease the pain and improve the function of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Primary and/or secondary OA causes inflammation and degeneration in joints, and regenerative approaches that may modify the natural course of the disease are limited. SVF may modulate inflammation and initiate regeneration in joint tissues by initiating a paracrine effect. Chemokines released from SVF may slow down degeneration and stimulate regeneration in joints. In this review, we overviewed articular joint cartilage structures and functions, OA, and macro-, micro-, and nano-fat isolation techniques. Mechanic and enzymatic SVF processing techniques were summarized. Clinical outcomes of adipose tissue derived tissue SVF (AD-tSVF) were evaluated. Medical devices that can mechanically isolate AD-tSVF were listed, and publications referring to such devices were summarized. Recent review manuscripts were also systematically evaluated and included. Transferring adipose tissues and cells has its roots in plastic, reconstructive, and aesthetic surgery. Micro- and nano-fat is also transferred to other organs and tissues to stimulate regeneration as it contains regenerative cells. Minimal manipulation of the adipose tissue is recently preferred to isolate the regenerative cells without disrupting them from their natural environment. The number of patients in the follow-up studies are recently increasing. The duration of follow up is also increasing with favorable outcomes from the short- to mid-term. There are however variations for mean age and the severity of knee OA patients between studies. Positive outcomes are related to the higher number of cells in the AD-tSVF. Repetition of injections and concomitant treatments such as combining the AD-tSVF with platelet rich plasma or hyaluronan are not solidified. Good results were obtained when combined with arthroscopic debridement and micro- or nano-fracture techniques for small-sized cartilage defects. The optimum pressure applied to the tissues and cells during filtration and purification of the AD-tSVF is not specified yet. Quantitative monitoring of articular joint cartilage regeneration by ultrasound, MR, and synovial fluid analysis as well as with second-look arthroscopy could improve our current knowledge on AD-tSVF treatment in knee OA. AD-tSVF isolation techniques and technologies have the potential to improve knee OA treatment. The duration of centrifugation, filtration, washing, and purification should however be standardized. Using gravity-only for isolation and filtration could be a reasonable approach to avoid possible complications of other methodologies.