Direct conversion of alkaline earth metal hydroxides and sulfates to carbonates in ammonia solutions

Creative Commons License

Ehsani I., Ehsani A., ÜÇYILDIZ A., OBUT A.

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROBLEMS OF MINERAL PROCESSING, vol.58, no.1, pp.169-180, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 58 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.37190/ppmp/145415
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Communication Abstracts, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.169-180
  • Keywords: alkaline earth metal, ammonia leaching, direct conversion, dissolved carbonate, smithsonite, MECHANOCHEMICAL CONVERSION, STRONTIUM CARBONATE, MINERAL CELESTITE, CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE, BARIUM CARBONATE, SRCO3, ZINC, KINETICS, SRSO4, DECOMPOSITION
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, the direct conversion behaviors of different alkaline earth metal solids (the hydroxides and the sulfates of alkaline earth metals Ca, Sr, Ba and Mg) to their corresponding carbonates in dissolved carbonate-containing pregnant solutions obtained by direct leaching of a smithsonite (ZnCO3) ore sample in aqueous ammonia solutions having different concentrations (4 M, 8 M and 13.3 M NH3) were investigated by using X-ray diffraction analyses at alkaline earth metal to dissolved carbonate mole ratios of 1:1 and 1:2, for revealing the conversion possibilities of dissolved carbonate in the pregnant solutions to solid carbonate by-products. The results of direct conversion experiments showed that Ca(OH)(2), CaSO4 center dot 2H(2)O, Sr(OH)(2)center dot 8H(2)O and Ba(OH)(2)center dot 8H(2)O converted to their corresponding carbonates, SrSO4 partially converted to SrCO3 as observed by the presence of unreacted SrSO4 peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns of the converted solids, and BaSO4 did not convert to BaCO3 because of its lower solubility with respect to BaCO3. On the other hand, it was observed that Mg(OH)(2) did not convert to MgCO3, but MgSO4 center dot 7H(2)O converted dominantly to an uncommon phase, which was tentatively identified as Mg5Zn3(CO3)(2)(OH)(12)center dot H2O. In the study, a complete discussion on the conversion behaviors of alkaline earth metal solids to their corresponding carbonates was given considering the differences between their solubility product constants and the changes in the free energies of the theoretical conversion reactions. In addition, infrared spectra and scanning electron microscope images of some of the converted solids were also presented for characterization purposes.