Background/aims: We aimed to determine the effect of transarterial chemoembolization treatment on survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of two different transarterial chemoembolization procedures, conventional transarterial chemoembolization and drug-eluting beads, in these patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with transarterial chemoembolization between January 2007 and March 2011 were included. Thirty-seven patients had Child-Pugh class A and the remaining 3 had class B. Intra-arterial administration of doxorubicin with lipiodol-based conventional transarterial chemoembolization or drug-eluting beads-transarterial chemoembolization was performed. Eighty sessions were performed with a median of 2 sessions. Sixteen patients were treated with conventional transarterial chemoembolization and 11 with drug-eluting beads-based transarterial chemoembolization, and 13 were treated with both treatment procedures in separate sessions. Primary outcome was defined as patient survival after treatment. Results: The median follow-up was 19 months. The median overall survival of patients was 23.2 months. The survival of patients with Child-Pugh class A was significantly better than that of patients with class B (24 vs 6 months, p=0.004). No statistically significant difference in survival was observed between conventional transarterial chemoembolization and drug-eluting beads-based transarterial chemoembolization treatments (p>0.05). Baseline low serum albumin level (p=0.003) and the presence of portal vein thrombosis (p=0.011) negatively affected patient survival. Side effects of conventional transarterial chemoembolization and drug-eluting beads-based transarterial chemoembolization were similar. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study and in comparison with the findings in the literature, transarterial chemoembolization treatment was seen to improve overall survival and provide better outcome in selected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. No differences in survival or side effects were observed between the two transarterial chemoembolization treatment modalities.