Typical Face, Developmental Delay, and Hearing Loss in a Patient with 3M Syndrome: The Co-Occurrence of Two Rare Conditions

AKALIN A., Simsek-Kiper P. O., Taskiran E., ÜTİNE G. E., BODUROĞLU O. K.

MOLECULAR SYNDROMOLOGY, vol.13, no.6, pp.537-542, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1159/000524703
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, EMBASE
  • Page Numbers: pp.537-542
  • Keywords: 3M syndrome, CUL7 gene, Short stature, Developmental delay, Sensorineural hearing loss, 3-M SYNDROME, CUL7
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Introduction: 3M syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by characteristic facial features, severe pre- and postnatal growth restriction (<-4 SDS), and normal mental development. 3M syndrome is genetically heterogeneous. Up to date, causative mutations have been demonstrated in 3 genes, cullin-7 (CUL7), obscurin-like 1 (OBSL1), and coiled coil domain containing protein 8 (CCDC8). Case presentation: Here, we report a patient who was referred to our clinic due to short stature and developmental delay. Physical examination revealed prenatal onset short stature, low birth weight, and normal head circumference. She displayed several dysmorphic facial features in addition to developmental delay and bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. The physical findings were suggestive of 3M syndrome. Genetic assessment revealed a novel homozygous frameshift c.418_419delAC (p.Thr140Cysfs*11) variant in the CUL7 gene and a previously reported pathogenic nonsense homozygous c.942C>A (p.Cys314Ter) variant in the ILDR1 gene. The parents were heterozygous for the same variant. Discussion: 3M syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with short stature and typical facial features even if in the presence of other inconsistent features such as developmental delay. In addition, it is important to take into account the co-occurrence of rare autosomal recessive genetic disorders especially in countries with a high consanguineous marriage rate.