A new species of Viola, V kizildaghensis M. Ding & L Yildirimli, from Turkey is described and illustrated. It is found on the rocky slopes of Kizildag, Kizildag National Park, in the vilayet of Isparta, south-west Turkey, at an elevation of 1350-1600m. It belongs to Viola, subsection Viola, and is similar to the Lebanese endemic V libanotica Boiss., distinguished by its lanceolate, cuneate based leaves, pinkish-purple flowers with white throats, glabrous lateral petals, and peduncles bearing the mature fruit procumbent and pubescent. It is somewhat similar to another species from south-west Turkey, V sandrasca Melchior, that is endemic to Sandras Dag in the vilayet Mugla; it is distinguished from this by the characters listed above, its pubescent leaves and peduncles, and its linear-lanceolate to lanceolate stipules which have short, gland-tipped fimbriae. (C) 2002 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2002, 138, 483-487.